4 Types of DNA Test Models That Are Used to Determine Parentage or Background

When it comes to DNA testing today, you may refer to various types of testing. The following information can help you decide what testing method to use if you need to determine parentage or ethnic makeup. These testing models make it possible for users to better understand and identity their place on the family tree.

1. Y-DNA Tests

A Y-DNA test compares the markers of a man’s Y-chromosome with those of other tested males. It is used to match males with similar or the same Y-DNA. This type of test is only pertinent for determining the direct paternal/male genealogically. Males have Y-DNA inherited from their father – via his father, etc. Therefore, only men can take this type of test. If you are a male interested in researching the history of your family, this type of DNA testing model can be worthwhile.

2. mtDNA Testing

This type of DNA testing involves mitochondrial testing, and is only pertinent to the direct maternal line. Everyone has mtDNA, which comes from their mother, through her mother, etc. Therefore, both males and females can use this test. While males cannot pass mtDNA to their offspring, they can have their mtDNA tested.

A mitochondrial DNA test can help users find out if they descended from the same female ancestor as another tester. Like Y-DNA tests, this test can be useful in family history research. Visit to learn more.

3. atDNA tests

This type of test is an autosomal DNA test that compares autosomal DNA and matches you with relatives on any of your ancestral lines. Everyone inherits atDNA from their parents. Therefore, anyone of any gender or age can use this form of DNA testing. While matches are the most precise for recent family generations or one’s immediate family, matches can still be made six generations back – or even further.

This type of DNA test is ideal for pedigree research and, again, is useful if you are researching your family’s history.

Autosomal DNA tests also include a predictor of the biogeographical makeup of test applicants. This is referred to as an admixture. This can help a person taking the test review regional breakdowns and learn more about his or her ethnic background.

4. X-DNA

Besides autosomal DNA testing, X-DNA tests are used by some DNA test companies to determine X-chromosome matches. These tests do not need to be made separately. X-DNA matches may be useful in determining certain inheritance patterns, which apply to the X-chromosome. A male can only inherit an X-chromosome from his mother while a female can inherit X-recombined from both their mother and father.

By confirming DNA relatives with X-chromosome matches, you can isolate a shared common ancestor to a specific branch of the family tree.

To better understand this testing model, you need to be aware of how X-chromosomes are used in genetic testing. Your sex, for instance, is determined by both X and Y chromosomes, or chromosome pair number 23. While males inherit a Y chromosome from their father and X-chromosome from their mother, females inherit an X-chromosome from each parent. X-DNA cannot be passed down via two successive generations of males.

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